Byelorussians have always held religion in high esteem. There are indications that this is also the case in Soviet Byelorussia, where antireligious propaganda is sponsored by the government. The role played by the three principal Christian denominations, Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant, in the development of Byelorussian culture was briefly discussed in Chapter One. The religious life of the Byelorussian ethnic group in Canada will be the object of the present chapter.
Before World War II, as has been mentioned earlier, 75% of Byelorussians belonged to the Greek Orthodox denomination, 20% to the Roman Catholic and 5% to the Protestant. Byelorussian churches and religious organizations in Canada were not established until after the war. Even then these religious denominations reacted differently to the idea of separate Byelorussian parishes and church organizations as advocated by nationality conscious Byelorussians.
The Roman Catholic Church refused to establish Byelorussian Roman Catholic parishes in this country. It ignored the fact that there are many Byelorussian Roman Catholics in Canada and disregarded repeated Byelorussian demands, from Roman Catholics and Orthodox alike, for separate Byelorussian Roman Catholic parishes.2 Not one Byelorussian Roman Catholic church or religious organization exists in this country. It is most unlikely that the situation will change in the foreseeable future.
Neither did Byelorussian Protestants found their own churches. For example, Evangelical Christians, as Ivan Huk of Toronto writes, "have never had Byelorussian churches in Canada. There are many ministers of Byelorussian origin, including myself, but, because of the circumstances prevailing at that time, we do not know the Byelorussian language, since our education was in Russian."3
Byelorussian Greek Orthodox, on the other hand, were free to establish their own parishes. In February 1950 the Byelorussian Canadian Alliance contacted Mikhail Mihai, a Greek Orthodox priest of Byelorussian origin, who had expressed willingness to organize a parish. Father Mihai was offered a church hall by the vicar of St. Stephen's Anglican Church in College Street, Toronto. The first Holy Liturgy and prayers on the occasion of Byelorussia's Independence were held on 23 March 1950. However, regular services did not begin until the following May because the iconostasis4 and candlesticks were not ready before that date. The iconostasis was built by the faithful, thanks to the endeavours of Vasil' Razanovich, the first Church Committee Chairman.
Unfortunately, the services ceased after six months, since the priest left the newly organized Byelorussian church and accepted an appointment in a Russian Orthodox parish outside Toronto. According to the newspaper Byelorussian Voice,5 the cause of his departure was the pressure exercised by some members of the Church Committee who were in favour of joining the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church.6 Towards the end of 1951 Father Mihai returned to Toronto and the Byelorussian community in that city reconsidered the idea of establishing its own church on a permanent basis. Permission to hold services in their church hall was obtained from the Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Vladimir on Bathurst Street. In January 1952 the Byelorussian Orthodox Church in Toronto began to function again.7 On 25 March Holy Liturgy was celebrated8 and a meeting was called in the church hall in the course of which a church committee with Vasil' Kisel' as chairman was elected. It was also decided to establish a Byelorussian Orthodox parish and to name it after St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk, the Patron Saint of Byelorussia.9 The question whether the Parish should be under the jurisdiction of the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church or the Exarch of the Patriarch of Constantinople was to be discussed at a later date.
On 11 May 1952 a general meeting of the parishioners was held. It decided by an overwhelming majority to ask the Patriarch's Exarch for North America to take the Byelorussian Orthodox Parish of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk under his jurisdiction.8 By October the Parish was officially recognized by the Exarch. Towards the end of September the Provincial Government of Ontario authorized the parish priest to solemnize marriages.11
The Parish was supported by the Byelorussian National Association in Canada. As has been mentioned in the preceding chapter, the two organizations bought a house at 11 Cunningham Avenue, Toronto, in spring 1953. The five-room building was to serve as a church, as a community centre and as BNA headquarters. On 28 June the first Holy Liturgy was celebrated in a room of the recently acquired house. Another room designated for the church hall was blessed soon afterwards. Over two hundred people attended both services and heard the church choir under the direction of Mrs. Mihai.12 Byelorussians from other Canadian cities, for instance Burlington, Oshawa and from Montreal, sent donations for the house,13 since they considered the St. Euphrosinia Byelorussian Orthodox Parish as being theirs also. Church services were held regularly and the Parish Committee called yearly meetings of the parishioners.
The Byelorussian Canadian Alliance invited Mikhas' Matsukevich, a newly-ordained Byelorussian Orthodox priest, to establish another parish in Toronto. On 17 June 1954 Father Matsukevich arrived from Winnipeg where he had studied at the Ukrainian Church Academy and had been ordained on 6 May. Bishop Vasilii of the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church appointed Mikhas' Matsukevich parish priest on 8 August 1954. On 2 October Father Mikhas' celebrated the first Holy Liturgy in the house at 1000 Dundas Street West, Toronto, recently acquired by BCA. Thus the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Parish of St. Cyril of Turau was founded. The Parish Council, with T. Kurbat as chairman, was elected on 24 October 1954. The building serving as a church, community centre and BCA headquarters was blessed by Bishop Vasilii on 20 November. He also consecrated one room as a chapel.14 Afterwards ordinary parish life, with regular church services and Parish Council meetings, began. On 3 February 1956 the parish priest received permission from the Provincial Government of Ontario to solemnize marriages.
The two parishes served Byelorussian Orthodox, not only in Toronto and the vicinity, but also in other cities in Ontario and even outside the province. For instance, Mikhas' Matsukevich, the parish priest of the St. Cyril of Turau Parish, celebrated Holy Liturgy in Montreal on 4 December 1955. He also recited prayers for those who had died during the Slutsk uprising.15 On 22 January 1956 Mikhail Mihai, the parish priest of the St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk Parish, accompanied by the Parish Committee delegates, visited the Byelorussian communities in Hamilton, St. Catharines and Burlington. Those visited made "substantial contributions" to the parish fund and non-members joined the Parish.16 It was a traditional Christmas visitation, since the Orthodox celebrate Christmas thirteen days later than Western Christians and since the festive season is longer than that of other religious denominations.
The St. Cyril of Turau Parish published its own mimeographed bulletin, entitled "Notices" ("Pavedamlen'ni"). Between 1956 and 1959 ten issues appeared. The title of the publication is misleading, since, in addition to parish notices the bulletin contains parish news and short articles on religion and church history.17
The number of parishioners in the St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk grew considerably and the room, which could hold 120-150 people, was found to be too small. The Very Reverend V. Sahaidakivskyi, a Ukrainian Greek Orthodox priest, succeeded M. Mihai as parish priest in 1956. Sahaidakivskyi helped the Parish to buy a former Ukrainian Orthodox church at 1008 Dovercourt Road, Toronto. In two weeks members of the congregation, consisting of 120 families,18 donated $3,000 to make up a shortfall difference in the down payment. The building, consisting of a church and several rooms, has served as a religious and community centre. It has been jointly owned by the Parish and the Byelorussian National Association in Canada since July 1957. The first Holy Liturgy in the new church was celebrated on 4 August.19
A larger building at 524 St. Clarens Avenue, Toronto, was also acquired by the St. Cyril of Turau Parish and the Byelorussian Canadian Alliance. On 29 August 1959 both the Parish and BCA moved into the new quarters.20 The building has only a basement in which a chapel and a hall, serving as a church hall and community centre, are located. Plans to construct the main floor, which was to be a church, have never been carried out. The Most Reverend Vasilii, Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Archbishop of New York, consecrated the chapel and celebrated Holy Liturgy on 22 November 1959. The official opening of the hall took place on the same day. The City of Toronto, the Provincial and the Federal Governments sent their representatives to the ceremony. In his speech, Mayor Nathan Phillips congratulated the Parish and BCA on their achievements and wished them success in the future.21
In the late fifties the Byelorussian community in Montreal planned to organize its own Byelorussian Greek Orthodox parish. Sufficient money was collected for the acquisition of land and a special fund was established for the construction of a church. A lot was purchased but the church was never built, since a Byelorussian Orthodox priest willing to take charge of the future parish in Montreal could not be found. The newspaper Byelorussian Voice blamed Father Mikhas' Matsukevich for the failure. According to the newspaper, he should have left the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Parish of St. Cyril of Turau in Toronto and gone to Montreal because Byelorussians in Toronto already had the Byelorussian Parish of St. Eu-phrosinia of Polatsk.22 The true reason, in our opinion, was the fact that the Byelorussian community in Montreal failed to establish a strong secular organization which would support the future parish. The lot was sold and the money together with additional funds collected for the future church were given to the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1959.23
The Reverend Matsukevich of the St. Cyril of Turau Parish in Toronto continued to hold church services in other cities in Ontario. On 19 March 1960, for instance, he concelebrated Holy Liturgy with Father Huzuliak of the Ukrainian Holy Trinity Church in London.'The BCA local branch was commemorating the forty second anniversary of Byelorussia's Independence.24 During the celebration of the same anniversary, organized by the BCA Sudbury Branch on 2 April, he also concelebrated with Father Dymitryi of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in that city.25
The Reverend Frantsishak Charniauski, a Roman Catholic priest of Byelorussian origin, celebrated Holy Mass in the Lithuanian Roman Catholic Church in Toronto on 21 July 1960. Byelorussian Roman Catholics and some Orthodox came to the service. It was Father Charniauski's third visit to the Byelorussian community in Toronto.26 He was working in an English-speaking Roman Catholic parish in Albany, New York.
The Byelorussian (Orthodox Catholic)27 Church, (Belaruskaia Subozhnia [Artadaksal'na-Katalitskaia]), founded with the assistance of the Polish Old Catholic Church, established the post of the Apostolic Visitor for Byelorussian Catholics in USA and Canada at the beginning of 1961 and Vatslau Mateichyk, an Old Catholic priest of Byelorussian origin, was appointed Visitor.28 A year later he obtained permission from the Provincial Government of Ontario to solemnize marriages.29 Bishop Vatslau celebrated Holy Mass in the Ukrainian Presbyterian Church in Hamilton on 25 March 1962.30 It was learned from interviews with members of the Byelorussian community in Toronto that the Byelorussian (Orthodox Catholic) Church had never had followers in Canada. Nevertheless, Mateichyk remained in this country and used the title of "Apostolic Visitor for Byelorussian Catholics in Canada," as can be seen from his Christmas message issued in Hamilton on 25 December 1962.31 He was still in Ontario two years later and addressed another Christmas message to "Byelorussian Catholics in Canada," which was issued in Toronto on 25 December 1964.32 This is the last mention of Bishop Vatslau in the Byelorussian Voice, since he left for Europe soon afterwards.33
In summer 1966 the St. Euphrosinia Byelorussian Church in Toronto was renovated and a church hall was built. The parishioners did all the work themselves. The parish priest, V. Sahaidakivskyi, supervised the acquisition of nearly twenty icons from the Iablochynski Byelorussian Greek Orthodox Monastery located in the western part of the Belastok region, incorporated into Poland after the war. The icons, painted by a Byelorussian monk, are the parish's most precious possession. They were framed and put either on the iconostasis or the walls. The reconsecration of the church took place on 25 September 1966. After Holy Liturgy, the blessing of the church was performed, followed by a congregational dinner. It should be noted that Rumanians and Cossacks were also using the St. Euphrosinia Church.34
Mikhas' Matsukevich, the parish priest of the St. Cyril of Turau Parish in Toronto, was consecrated Titular Bishop of Turau-Pinsk in Byelorussia and received the name of Mikalai in Adelaide, Australia, on 10 March 1968. The consecration was performed by Archbishop Sergei, Primate of the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church in Exile, Archbishop Vasilii of the same church, a Ukrainian archbishop and a Serbian bishop. The parish church was elevated to the status of the Cathedral of St. Cyril of Turau.35 Bishop Mikalai remained in charge of the parish. He has recently been made Archbishop.
The Byelorussian Orthodox Parish of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk in Toronto solemnly celebrated the twentieth anniversary of its foundation on 31 May 1970. The Most Reverend Theodosius, Greek Orthodox Bishop of Toronto and Canada and the representative of the Exarch of the Patriarch of Constantinople, celebrated Holy Liturgy. The Very Reverend Archimandrite I. Strok, the parish priest, and four other priests representing different Greek Orthodox churches concelebrated. After the service, there was a banquet during which an address recalling the history of the church of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk was delivered and forty prizes, in the form of letters of recognition and gold crosses, were given to those who had made an outstanding contribution to the Church. Greetings from other Byelorussian Greek Orthodox churches and secular organizations were read.36 It should also be noted that the Parish printed a special card with the image of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk on the front page and a brief note on the Parish's history on the back.
Leaders of the Evangelical Baptist movement in Canada and the United States met in Erie, Pennsylvania, on 8 and 9 September 1973. They were Byelorussians, since their fellow countrymen constituted the vast majority of the movement's Slavic branch. Those present voted in favour of establishing the Byelorussian Evangelical Baptist Fraternity (Belaruskae Evanhel'ska-Baptystskae Bratstva). The first executive was elected, D. Ias'ko (USA) as chairman, Ia. Repetski (Canada) as vice-chairman, Ia. Likhach (Canada) as secretary and H. Sakhar (USA) as treasurer for America, Halaburda (Canada) as treasurer for this country and V. Maeuski (USA) as member.37 A resolution to publish a song book for the use of its members was adopted by the Fraternity. It was decided to initiate religious radio broadcasts in Byelorussian destined for their compatriots in Byelorussia. The question of the publication of a bulletin in Byelorussian was also discussed and agreed upon. The meeting greeted with great pleasure the Byelorussian translation of the Holy Bible,38 at the same time pointing out some linguistic shortcomings.39 It should be observed that without a Byelorussian translation of the Bible and without a religious song book in Byelorussian, Evangelical Christians cannot conduct their services in that language.
On 12 October 1975 the Byelorussian Orthodox Parish of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk in Toronto celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of its foundation. This celebration was similar to the celebration of the twentieth anniversary. The three principal points of difference between the two functions were: 1. The Exarch's representative was Greek Orthodox Bishop Satirasi; 2. The Very Reverend Canon P. Veliki had taken over the duties of parish priest two years before; 3. The card printed for the occasion had a different icon of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk, while the second page contained an invitation, and historical notes were on the third and last page. Byelorussians from Oshawa joined the parishioners in the celebration.40
The Byelorussian Orthodox Parish of St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk and the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Parish of St. Cyril of Turau, both in Toronto, have never held any celebration together or organized a joint function of any description. There is no difference between the two parishes except that the former is under the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople and considers the latter church as not canonical (invalid), since it is under the jurisdiction of the Head of the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church in Exile and that the St. Euphrosinia Parish is supported by the Byelorussian National Association in Canada and the St. Cyril Parish by the Byelorussian Canadian Alliance. Their church services are identical and their other activities are very similar.
Both parishes have held regular church services, including baptisms, weddings and funerals, and have sponsored numerous functions and celebrations. The most important and the most frequent have been the Christmas tree for children, New Year's celebration, carol singing in parishioners' homes, priests' visits with holy water, Easter visits, dances, including those held on Shrove Tuesday which are preceded by a special dinner, St. John the Baptist's vigil (Kupala) and picnics. As has been mentioned in the preceding chapter, each parish, in collaboration with the organization supporting it, or on its own, has organized a Saturday school in which children are taught the Byelorussian language as well as the rudiments of the Orthodox faith. From the very beginning of their existence both churches have had a sisterhood. Sisterhoods, open to all women in the parish, assist the priest and the elders in decorating the church, organizing various functions and above all hold special prayer meetings for their members.
Neither of the Byelorussian Orthodox parishes in Toronto has its own bulletin. The St. Euphrosinia Parish distributes the Torch of the Church (Tsarkouny S'vetach), edited by the Council of the Byelorussian Orthodox Church41 and the St. Cyril Parish the Voice of the Church (Holas Tsarkvy), edited by the Council of the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church.42 Each publication occasionally prints news from the parish supporting it.
The Byelorussian Evangelical Baptist Fraternity in the United States and Canada has its own publication in Byelorussian, entitled The Messenger (Vesnik). The editors are the Reverend D. Ias'ko and the Reverend J. Pantsevich, both from California. The Messenger is four pages long and contains short articles on religion, brief religious news and an occasional spiritual song. Several leaflets in Byelorussian have been published by the Fraternity's members or former members. For instance, I. Huk of Toronto is the author of "Why Do We Read the Bible?" ("Chamu my chytaem Bibliiu?"), recently printed in Toronto. The tenth issue of The Messenger notified its readers that the preparation of a Byelorussian song book, entitled Christian Hymns (Himny Khristsiian), was being completed by D. Ias'ko, and that it would contain about 400 songs suitable for church as well as for the personal use of Christians.43 The book appeared in 1979. It contains both the words and music of 604 hymns.433 I. Huk, the Director of the Russian Department of the Toronto Christian Mission, himself a Byelorussian, said that there had been Byelorussian religious radio broadcasts for several years. The broadcasts, sponsored by the Mission, had been prepared in Canada and transmitted every Friday through the Trans World Radio in Monte Carlo, Monaco, to Byelorussia.44
The prewar Byelorussian peasant immigrants, who constituted the bulk of the Byelorussian ethnic group in Canada, considered themselves more as members of a church than as members of a nation. However, one cannot agree with V.J. Kaye when he says that the Church played an important role in the development of national consciousness among members of the Byelorussian ethnic group in this country.45 Byelorussian immigrants to Canada of the Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations joined or even founded Polish or Russian churches and sometimes joined Ukrainian religious groups before the war. As has been mentioned, Byelorussian Roman Catholics in this country have never founded their own church or even a religious organization. In the late 1920s and early 1930s large groups of Byelorussian Evangelical Christians went to Erwood and Biggar, Saskatchewan, Gart, Alberta, and Benito, Manitoba.46 However, according to I. Huk, who arrived in Perdue, Saskatchewan, in 1928 and who has been involved in matters religious since that year, there has never been a Byelorussian Protestant church in Canada.47 Even the Byelorussian Evangelical Baptist Fraternity in the United States and Canada has not been sufficiently active. The main reason seems to be misinterpretation of some of the resolutions passed by the 1972 meeting and slow implementation of the others. Huk left the Confraternity because of a policy disagreement with some of its members.48
The Greek Orthodox Church did not become a rallying point for the Byelorussian ethnic community either. It has been mentioned earlier in this chapter that Byelorussian secular organizations took the initiative in establishing the Greek Orthodox parishes which they have been supporting.
Neither the St. Euphrosinia of Polatsk Byelorussian Orthodox Parish in Toronto, supported by the Byelorussian National Association in Canada, nor the St. Cyril of Turau Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Parish in that city, supported by the Byelorussian Canadian Alliance, has attracted numerous members. In 1975, the former had about 100 members making regular contribution,49 while two years later the latter had 43 families contributing regularly to the parish fund and about 80 families who made donations occasionally, for instance at Christmas and Easter, and who came to Archbishop Mikalai for christenings, weddings, etc.50 Thousands of Byelorussian Greek Orthodox in the Toronto area alone joined other national churches.
The two Byelorussian Greek Orthodox parishes in Toronto have never had any official contact. Archbishop Mikalai of the St. Cyril Parish and Archmandrite I. Strok of the St. Euphrosinia Parish (1970-1973) have met only privately.51 Canon P. Veliki, in charge of the latter church, said that his attitude towards parishioners of St. Cyril as individuals had been friendly, but so far as their parish as an organization was concerned his attitude was "negative." He would never recognize the Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church in Exile or its bishops, including Archbishop Mikalai.52 Members from one parish do not seem to hold an extreme view of members from the other. However, it is most unlikely that they will take any initiative to unite the two parishes in the near future, since the rift between the organizations supporting them, BCA and BNA, has had repercussions in their churches. It is possible that the younger generation, unaffected by the squabbles between various factions of the Byelorussian community in Toronto, will either unite the existing parishes or establish a new church which will serve all Byelorussians and not just one section.
1. According to our estimate there were about 35,000 Byelorussian Roman Catholics in Canada in 1971. See Chapter Two of this book.
2. A Savas'tsionak, "Pihmei dukha," Belaruski kolas, Toronto [Henceforth abbreviated as Bel hol], January 1964.
N.B. Titles of newspaper articles, which are summarized by title, and of news items will be omitted, since the reader can easily locate them at source.In an interview with this author, 4 May 1977, the Very Reverend P. Veliki of Toronto said that in Hamilton, Ontario, "an entire street" was inhabited by Byelorussian Roman Catholics. Their endeavours to obtain a Byelorussian-speaking priest were "thwarted by the Vatican." Finally, they had no choice but to join the Polish Roman Catholic parish.It is well known that Byelorussians in other Western countries were also unsuccessful in obtaining permission from the Roman Catholic authorities to establish their own parishes.
3. In letter to author, 7 March 1977.
4. The screen placed between the faithful and the altar is called an iconostasis. It is an essential fixture in a Greek Orthodox church. The iconostasis is adorned with icons, images of saints.
5. Bel hol, Feb. 1970.
6. Most national branches of the Greek Orthodox Church are self-governing, i.e. autocephalic. They all recognize the Patriarch of Constantinople as their nominal head.
The Byelorussian Autocephalic Orthodox Church was established by Byelorussian bishops in Byelorussia in 1942. It has continued its activities in exile except for a brief interval after the war.
7. Bel hol, Feb. 1970.
8. Ibid., July 1953.
9. Ibid., Oct. 1952.
10. Ibid., Feb. 1970.
11. Ibid., Oct. 1952.
12. Ibid, July 1953.
13. Ibid., June 1954.
14. Belarus, New York-Toronto [Henceforth abbreviated as Bel], Oct. 1969.
15. Batc'kaushchyna, Munich [Henceforth abbreviated as Bats'], 25 Dec. 1955.
16. Bel hol, Feb. 1956.
17. Copies of "Notices" (Paviedamlen'ni") are kept in the Archives of the St. Cyril of Turau Parish, 524 St. Clarens Ave., Toronto, Ont. M6H 3W7.
18. The Telegram, Toronto, 3 Aug. 1957.
19. Bel hol, Aug. 1957.
20. Bats', 18 Oct. 1959.
21. Ibid., 6 Dec. 1959.
22. Bel hol, March 1959.
24. Bats', 10 April 1960.
25. Ibid., 24 April 1960.
26. Ibid., 18 Sept. 1960.
27. The name is most unusual. The first adjective "Orthodox" seemed to imply the Church's independence from the Pope, Head of the Roman Catholic Church. The second "Catholic" was used with the purpose of attracting Byelorussian Roman Catholics.
28. Bel hol, Feb. 1961.
29. Ibid., Feb. 1962.
30. Ibid., April 1962.
31. Ibid., Dec. 1962.
32. Ibid., Dec. 1964.
33. S. Khmara, in interview with author, 11 May 1977.
34. Bel hol, On. 1966.
35. See the certificate of Consecration kept in the Archives of St. Cyril of Turau, Toronto.
36. Bel hol, June 1970.
37. Vesnik Belaruskaha Evanhel'ska-Baptystskaha Bratstva, New York, (n.d.), 1.
38. S'viataia Bibliia: Knihi S'viatoha Pis'ma Staroha i Novaha Zakonu, New York, 1973.
39. Bel hol, Oct. 1973.
40. Ibid., Dec. 1975.
41. Tsarkouny s'vetach, South River, N.J., U.S.A.
42. Holas Tsarkvy, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A.
43. Vesnik, 10.
44. 43a. Himny Khrystsiian, Christian Hymns in Byelorussian, Peraklau z roznykh movau i ulazhyu D.A. Ias'ko, (Cranesville, Pa., 1979).
45. In interview with author, 19 May 1977.
46. V.J. Kaye, "Canadians of Byelorussian Origin," Revue de 1'Universite d'Ottawa, XXX (1960), 312-14.
47. Bel hol, March 1969.
48. In interview with author, 19 May 1977.
50. The figure was supplied by Canon P. Veliki, the parish priest, during an interview with this author on 18 June 1975.
51. The information was supplied by Archbishop Mikalai, who has been in charge of the parish since its foundation, during an interview with this author on 27 April 1977.
53. In interview with author, 4 May 1977.
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